Foeniculum vulgare Common name: Fennel
Parts used: Fruit
Constituents: volatile oil (up to 8% consisting of anethole, estrogole, fenchone), flavonoids (rutin, quercetin, kaempferol glycosides), coumarins, sterols.
Medicinal actions: Stomachic, carminative, anti-inflammatory, phytoestrogenic, galactogogue
Medicinal uses: The volatile oil relaxes the smooth muscles of the intestines thus relieving griping and flatulence. Fennel is more relaxing and more easily tolerated than Cumin or dill seeds, and more stimulating than anise seeds. Fennel is often used with purgatives to allay the associated griping. Fennel is also anti-inflammatory in the intestines.
Pharmacy: Seeds 0.3-1.0 g. Infusion: 1-2 tsp crushed seeds/cup > TID. Tincture (1:5), 0.5-2 ml TID.
Toxicity: Fennel oil BPC 0.03-0.2 ml/day; toxic dose 1-5 ml/day. Skin irritation, N/V, seizures, pulmonary edema, liver lesions.